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In each case the girl is essentially an embodiment of nature as presented in the background. Those works which have con- tained helpful material have been cited in the notes of the sev- eral chapters. And, further, it must be admitted that tliere is in many cases an interaction between the passing moods of nature and of man. Translated from the Swedish, with an Introduction by Edwin Bjorkman. The extreme fullness of detail noted in various plays of Haupt- io8 Nature Backgroicncls in Dramas of Gerhart Hauptmann mann, from his earliest period on, is not to be found in the Ibsen dramas until the latest group '*'** is reached.'"" These descriptions include no subjective comment, but they do disclose the painter's disposition in the care for composition and the poet's temperament in the harmony that exists between the mood of the setting and that of the drama. In practically all the dramas this is emphasized by a definition of light or atmosphere.''" In many instances phenomena of nature, chiefly the realistic ones due to the passing of time or changes in weather conditions, accompany the action and, in various plays, heighten the dramatic efifect of the closing scene."' Although Strindl)erg, like Ibsen and Hauptmann, pays great attention to the settings of his plays, his landscape descrip- tions are for the most part simple and suggestive, rather than elaborately detailed.'"- In plays with interior settings he some- "' In referring to the different groups of Ibsen's and Strindberg's dramas, the classifications made respectively by Heller in Henrik Ibsen (Houghton) Mifflin Co., Boston, 1912), and Bjorkman in his articles on Strindberg in The Forum of February and March, 1912, have been adhered to. Nature Backgrounds in Dramas of Gcrhart llauptmann 109 times merely mentions that there is a view of landscape,"^ with- out indicating its asject ; but more frequently he directs the eye to one or two features of the outdoor scene.

This is a striking lapse in the naturalistic technique. Out of the twent)'-four Hauptmann dramas studied in the foregoing chapters, only three'^*^ are located in large cities.

The fact that the mood thus aroused by the picture was found always to antici- Nature Backgrounds in thamas of Gcrhart llauptmann 107 pate that of the particular situation in the drama furnishes addi- tional evidence of conscious subjective arrangement of the na- ture background.

It may of course be argued that this is merely in accord with the naturalistic theory that every detail of the environment is important in detemiining the character and ac- tion of tile individuals. Unquestionably there is the closest interaction, in the purely naturalistic sense, between the outdoor environment and the temperament of such individuals as Rose Bernd, Griselda, or Gersuind. It has not l^een considered necessary to reprint a bibliog- raphy of bibliographical and critical material, since nothing of value to the foregoing study can be added to bibliographies already published elsewhere.

The garden is divided from the footpath and fjord in the background by a low fence. When aspects of nature are defined in the beginning they usually accompany and, in some cases, take part in the final effect. — Room in the house of Engclbrecht: a large window in the rear which opens upon a landscape '•* Gliickspetsr I. — Large kitchen.^ Arched doorway, through which are seen a fountain with a Cupid, lilac shrubs in bloom, and the tops of Lom- bardy poplars. "' See, for sample, Mittsommer, I ; Karl XII, I ; Die Kronbraut, I ; Ein Traumspiel, I. for example, the following playsj A * indicates a special climactic effect.

Far in the distance the mountain ranges rise into peaks behind the fjord. Die Helden nuf Helgeland*; Komodie der Liebe; Brand*; Peer Gynt* ; Die Frau vom Meere; Klein Eyolf;, Die St Utsen der Gesellschaft* ; G^espen- ster* ; Die Wildente; Rosmcrsholm; John Gabriel Borkman; Wenn wir Toten erwachen. These manifestations of nature ma\- be realistic ones, as wind, storm, changes of light, but in some of the symbolic plays most extravagantly fantastic phenomena are frequent.''" A study of the characteristics just indicated in summary brings the conclusion that whether they use the form of a "Mar- chendrama" such as Peer Cynt or CUkkspcter or Die zxrsunkene Glocke, or the idtranaturalistic technique of Gespcnster or Paria or Vor Sonncnaufgang, Ibsen, Strindberg, and Hauptmann, all give a temperamental interpretation and not an objective repro- duction of nature. — Room in a church tower; Starlit sky seen through windows at back. Paria; Samum; Advent*; Totentand* ; Die Konbraut* ; Traumspiel; Gespenstersonata* ; IVettertcuchten*. Biese — The Development of the Feeling for Nature, London, 1905; 1 lo Nature Backgrounds in Dramas of Gerhart Hauptmann in varied degrees to the nature treatment of these three repre- sentative modern dramatists. In addition to the German editions listed above, the fol- lowing translations and the admirable introductions to the sev- eral volumes have been consulted : Gerhart Hauptmann.

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