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These reforms permitted department heads to be drawn from outside the ranks of the traditionally trained orthodox ulama.In the late 10th century, the Shia Ismaili caliphate of the Fatimids made Egypt their center and Cairo their capital.
The literate theologians of Al-Azhar University generally rejected the version of Islam practiced by illiterate religious preachers and peasants in the countryside.
After the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, the government assumed responsibility for appointing officials to mosques and religious schools.
The government mandated reform of Al-Azhar University beginning in 1961.
Orthodox ulama or "the religious establishment" found themselves in a difficult position during the wave of Islamic activism that swept through Egypt in the 1970s and 1980s.
Most Ulama, including those of Al-Azhar University, are employees of the Egyptian state who "recognize the regime’s primacy, support its stability, and legitimize its policies".